Periodontal Disease and Osteoporosis

Periodontal disease is characterized by a progressive loss of supportive gingival tissue in the gums and jawbone.  It is the number one cause of tooth loss among adults in the developed world.  Periodontal disease occurs when toxins found in oral plaque inflame and irritate the soft tissues surrounding the teeth.  If left untreated, bacteria colonies initially cause the systematic destruction of gum tissue, and then proceed to destroy the underlying bone tissue.

Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disease which frequently occurs in postmenopausal women, and occurs less frequently in men.  Osteoporosis is characterized by bone fragility, low bone mass and a decrease in bone mineral density.  Many studies have explored and identified a connection between periodontal disease and osteoporosis.

A study conducted at the University of New York at Buffalo in 1995 concluded that post-menopausal women who suffered from osteoporosis were 86% more likely to also develop periodontal disease.

Reasons for the Connection

Though studies are still being conducted in order to further assess the extent of the relationship between osteoporosis and periodontal disease, the researchers have thus far made the following connections:

  • Estrogen deficiency – Estrogen deficiency accompanies menopause and also speeds up the progression of oral bone loss.  The lack of estrogen accelerates the rate of attachment loss (fibers and tissues which keep the teeth stable are destroyed).

  • Low mineral bone density – This is thought to be one of several causes of osteoporosis, and the inflammation from periodontal disease makes weakened bones more prone to break down.  This is why periodontitis can be more progressive in patients with osteoporosis.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Osteoporosis and periodontal disease are much less dangerous if they are diagnosed in the early stages.  Once a diagnosis has been made, the dentist will generally work with the patient’s doctor to ensure that both diseases are effectively controlled.

Here are some methods commonly used to diagnose and treat the diseases:

  • Routine dental X-rays – X-rays can be effectively used to screen for bone loss in the upper and lower jaw, and the dentist can provide interventions for preventing and treating periodontal disease.  It is believed that minimizing periodontal disease will help treat osteoporosis.

  • Estrogen supplements – Providing post-menopausal women with estrogen supplements lowers the rate of attachment loss and also lowers gingival inflammation, which in turn protects the teeth from periodontal disease.

  • Assessment of risk factors – Dentists and doctors are able to closely monitor the patients that are at an increased risk of developing both diseases by assessing family history, medical history, X-ray results, current medications and modifiable risk factors.  Tobacco use, obesity, poor diet and estrogen deficiency can all be managed using a combination of education, support and prescription medications.

If you have any questions about periodontal disease and its connection with osteoporosis, please contact our practice.

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Testimonials

I was not sure what to expect when I decided to try straightening my teeth for my daughter's wedding. There were only three months until the wedding and I really did not believe there would be significant results in such a short period of time. Furthermore, with a wedding in the near future, I was hesitant because I was not sure financially that this would be possible. I was extremely happy after meeting with Dr. Wiele and hearing what could be done with my teeth with the funds I had available. The entire three months went so quickly and the results were beautiful. I was amazed when the braces came off a week before the wedding and my teeth looked so straight and beautiful. The photographer did not have to ask me to smile for the pictures! If you would like to improve your smile, no matter what the reason or the financial situation, talk to Dr. Wiele and his staff. I'm sure glad I did!

Sharron Estes

Thank you all so much for going out of your way to perfect my smile. Everyone is always so wonderful to be around, it makes going to the dentist a fun experience. My teeth look wonderful and I am very pleased with the results. Thank you so much again for everything you have done and everything you continue to do.

Jill Bernard

I would like to thank Dr. Wiele and his staff for an unbelievable dental experience. I went from being terrified of dental work to actually being able to relax and rest in the chair. Thanks for the miracle you worked with my smile. I am truly grateful and realize I smile more than ever. I never knew it would look this awesome. You really are gifted from above!

Rodney Mills

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